Saadi mostly known as Saadi Shirazi was born in 1200 and passed away around 1292. His birth place as his pen-name suggests was Shiraz. When he was at his childhood, he lost his father. After that, his uncle helped Saadi with his study and he was able to complete his education in Shiraz. Later, he went to Baghdad in order to study at the famous College of Nezamiyeh and he could gain the traditional knowledge of Islam.
After returning to Iran, the difficult and uncertain conditions following the Mongol invasion of Persia made Saadi to leave the country and travel through Anatolia, Syria, Egypt and Iraq. He also refers in his works to trips in India and Central Asia. Saadi is very similar to Marco Polo who traveled in the region a lot between 1271 and 1294. However, these two are different in some ways.
The next time Saadi went back to his hometown Shiraz he was an elderly. At that time, Shiraz was relatively tranquil under the rule of Atabak Abubabkr Sa’d ibn Zangy. Not only was Saadi welcomed to the city but also he was greatly respected by the ruler of that time and named among the greats of the province.
The Boostan (The Orchard) and the Golestan (The Rose Garden) are Saadi’s most famous and his best known works. The Boostan has been completely written in verse (epic meter) and bears anecdotes and tales properly describing the common moralities recommended to Muslims (Liberality, contentment, modesty and justice). It also mirrors the virtues and manner practices by the Dervish Sect. The Golestan, however, reflects mainly his personal anecdotes and experiences. The text has a lot of different short poems, containing aphorisms, advice and humorous reflections. Saadi depicts a deep awareness of the absurdity of human existence. Manner of those who have faith in the non-reliable moods of kings is contrasted with the manner of Dervishes which is based on freedom. These two amazing works of Saadi (Boostan and Golestan) are incredibly attractive for the students of Western countries. One of the poems from Golestan which is globally known to people of all countries and has the essence of humanitarian for braking all the barriers is written in English as below:
Of one Essence is the human race,
Thusly has Creation put the Base,
One Limb impacted is sufficient,
For all others to feel the Mace.