Tehran/ Teheran, the capital of Iran and Tehran Province, with a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and also the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East (after Cairo). For the first time, by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (1786)it was chosen as the capital of Iran to remain within close reach of Iran’s territories in the Caucasus. The capital has been moved several times throughout history, and now Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran. October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was officially chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty.
The metropolis of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative center. 20 of the 22 municipal districts are located in Tehran County’s Central District, while the districts 1 and 20 are respectively located in the counties of Shemiranat and Ray. Although administratively separate, the cities of Ray and Shemiran are often considered part of Greater Tehran.Northern Tehran is the wealthiest part of the city consisting of various districts such as Zaferanie, Jordan, Elahie, Pasdaran, Kamranie, Ajodanie, Farmanie, Darrous, Qeytarie, and Qarb Town. While the center of the city houses government ministries and headquarters, commercial centers are more located towards further north.
Bearing a cold semi-arid climate with continental characteristics and a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, Tehran can be generally described as mild in spring and autumn, hot and dry in summer, and cold and wet in winter.
The weather of Tehran can sometimes be unpredictably harsh. The high record temperature is 43 °C (109 °F) and the low record is −20 °C (−4 °F). Tehran has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation since the beginning of the 21st century. This is most likely due to afforestation projects, which include expanding parks and lakes. The northern parts of Tehran are, still, lusher than the southern parts.
As a metropolis, Tehran by itself is a vast land overflown of beauties and charms; to visit it completely, an expanded time is needed. The attractions of this huge city are so much; to know better just some of them, go on reading with us:
• National Jewelry museum: The incomparable “Treasury of the National Jewels”, collected over centuries, is a collection of the most expensive jewels of the world. Every piece of this collection as a reflection of the tumultuous history of this great nation, and artistry of the residents of this land, recalls memories of bitter-sweet victories and defeats, of the pride and arrogance of rulers who were powerful or weak.These jewels and rarities were decorations for the rulers during the past eras, and often showed the glory and extravagance of their courts, as well as their power and wealth.
• Carpet Museum:Founded in 1976, the Carpet Museum exhibits a variety of Persian carpets from all over Iran, dating from the 16th century to the present.The museum was designed by the architect Abd-ol-Aziz Mirza Farmanfarmayan. The perforated structure around the museum’s exterior is designed both to resemble a carpet loom, and to cast shade on the exterior walls, reducing the impact of the hot summer sun on the interior temperature.The museum’s exhibition hall occupies 3,400 square meters (36,597 ft²) and its library contains 33,000,000 books
• Tehran Bazaar: an old historical bazaar, it is split into several corridors over 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) in length; each of which, specializing in different types of goods. Bazaar has several entrances, with Sabze-Meydan being the main entrance. In addition to shops, the Grand Bazaar contains mosques, guest houses, and banks. It has access to the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro through the stations of Khayam and Panzdah-e Khordad.
• Tajrish Bazaar: Tajrish is a city in Shemiranat County of Tehran Province, absorbed into Tehran.
Situated in the Shemiranat County along the northern edge of Tehran, Tajrish had 86,000 inhabitants. Tajrish neighborhood is one of the oldest parts of Tehran which during the last few decades have become so popular.
• Baharestan Square: Regarding the movement for the nationalization of the oil industry, Iran was a pioneer among the other Middle Eastern and North African countries; that’s why Baharestan Square in Tehran is essential for the realization of the fundamental demands of the Iranian people: it narrates one of the most important events in the contemporary history of Iran, and even of the Middle East. A magic lantern, a cannon ready to fire (memorial of the bombardment of the Parliament), and the statue of Sayed Hasan Modarres in the middle of the square demonstrate it well.
• Azadi/ Shahyad Square: commissioned by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, it hosts the masterpiece of Azadi Tower. As one of the landmarks of Tehran and the west entrance to the city, it is part of the Azadi Cultural Complex, including an underground museum.
Palaces and Monuments
• Marble Palace: one of the historic buildings and royal residences in Tehran, it is located in the city center: though the location was a quiet quarter of Tehran when the palace was erected. Built between 1934 and 1937, it was constructed on the orders of Reza Shah by French engineer Joseph Leon and Iranian architect Fath-o-lah Firdaws to host official functions and receptions.
• Dar al-Fanon School: established in 1851, it was the first modern university and modern institution of higher learning in Iran (Persia). Founded by Amir Kabir, then the royal vizier to Naser al-Din Shah, Dar al-Fanon originally was conceived as a polytechnic to train upper-class Persian youth in medicine, engineering, military science, and geology. It was similar in scope and purpose to American land grant colleges like Purdue and Texas A&M. Like them, it developed and expanded its mission over the next hundred years, eventually becoming the University of Tehran.
Castles and Towers
• Milad Tower: a multi-purpose tower in Tehran, it is one of the middle-east tallest tower and the 24th-tallest freestanding structure in the world. Standing 435 meters from the base to the tip of the antenna; the head of Milad Tower, consists of a large pod with 12 floors, the roof of which is at 315 meters height.