The Tehran’s Historic Arg was built during the reign of Tahmasp I (r. 1524-1576) of the Safavid dynasty (1502–1736), and was later renovated by Karim Khan of Zand (r. 1750-1779). Agha Mohammad Khan of Qajar (1742–1797) chose Tehran as his capital. The Arg became the site of the Qajar (1794–1925). The Court and the Golestan Palace became the official residence of the royal Qajar family. The palace was rebuilt to its current form in 1865 by Haji Ab ol Hasan Mimar Navai.
During the Pahlavi era (1925–1979), the Golestan Palace was used for formal royal receptions, and the Pahlavi dynasty built their own palace at Niavaran (Niavaran Palace Complex). The most important ceremonies, held in the palace during the Pahlavi era, were the coronation of Reza Khan (r. 1925-1941) in the Marble Throne (Takht e Marmar) and the coronation of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (r. 1941-deposed 1979) in the Museum Hall.
In between 1925 and 1945, a large portion of the buildings of the palace were destroyed on the orders of Reza Shah. He believed that the centuries old Qajar palace should not hinder the growth of a modern city. In the place of the old buildings, commercial buildings with the modern style of 1950s and 1960s were erected.
Golestan Palace Complex consists of 17 structures including palaces, museums, and halls. Almost all of this complex was built during the 200 years ruling of Qajarian kings. These palaces were used for many different occasions such as coronation and other important celebrations.
* The Marble Throne (Takht e Marmar)
* The Marble Throne
This spectacular terrace, known as the Marble Throne, was built in 1806 by order of Fath Ali Shah of Qajar (r. 1797-1834). Adorned by paintings, marble-carvings, tile-work, stucco, mirrors, enamel, woodcarvings, and lattice windows, the throne embodies the finest of Iranian architecture. The Marble Throne is one of the oldest buildings of the historic Arg. The existing throne, which is situated in the middle of the terrace (iwan), is made of the famous yellow marble of Yazd Province.
The throne is made of sixty-five pieces of marble, and was designed by Mirza Baba Naqash Bashi (head painter) of the Qajar court. Mohammad Ebrahim, the Royal Mason, oversaw the construction and several celebrated masters of the time worked on the execution of this masterpiece. The architectural details, and other ornaments of the terrace, were completed during the reigns of Fath Ali Shah and Nasser ol Din Shah (r. 1848-1896).
Coronations of Qajar kings, and formal court ceremonies were held on this terrace. The last coronation to be held at the Marble Throne was the coronation of the self-proclaimed king, Reza Khan Pahlavi, in 1925.