In the history of the ancient civilizations of the world, Iran has had the most prominent role. While many of the ancient tribes of the world have not survived, Iran and its culture and civilization have persevered to various events of the day for thousands of years. Only this, is enough to prove the greatness of Iran and its past civilization and culture. During the reign of Hushang Shah, Iran made various kinds of iron and steel tools and also succeeded in digging Qanats. It is well known that the successor of Hooshangshah, Tahmours, learned the art of writing from the Divan. But the most brilliant era was the time of the reign of Shah Jamshid, where the land of Iran was called “Great Iran,” and had a brilliant civilization.
Among the prominent traits of the ancient Iranians, justice and goodwill -even to their enemies- were prominent. Cyrus and Darius were known not only because of their great conquests, but also through human traits such as mercy, fairness and justice, which were not only known to friends but also to their enemies.
The ancient Iranians enjoyed a high level of knowledge and humanity.
For example, Cyrus the Great, the Achaemenid king at that time, ordered Jerusalem to be reconstructed so that the Jewish people could easily return to their hometown. He saved them from captivity.
The influence of Iranian culture and literature is one of the most prominent documents of the ancient civilization. The Charter of the Human Rights Declaration is the most prominent example of this.
Language and ethnic groups of Iran
Iran consists of many different tribes, including: Persians, Azeri, Kurds, Lars, Bakhtiari, Baloch, Mazandaran, Gilak, Qashqai, Arabs, Lak, Taleshi, Turkmen, Khalaj, Assyri, Keldani, Mandaea (Saibi), Tat, Georgian, Sistani, Armenian, and Jewish.
The ethnic distribition is 61% Persian, 16% Azeri, 10% Kurdish, 6% Lori, 2% Baloch, 2% Arabs, 2% Turkmen and 1% Other ethnic groups.
There are about 75 languages and dialects in Iran. The largest linguistic groups in Iran are Farsi, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Kurdish, Turkmen, Gilaki, Mazandaran, Khalaji, Taleshi, Lori, Bakhtiari, Arabic, Baluchi, Laki, Dilami, Tati, Armenian, Assyrian, Mandaean, Georgian, Hebrew, Chaldinian and others.
The official language of Iran is Farsi. Persian is one of the languages of the Indo-European branch. According to the fifteenth principle of the Iranian Constitution, textbooks should be in this language, but the use of local and ethnic languages along with Persian language in the press and mass media and in schools is allowed.